Domestic and Foreign Effects of International Aid

“The urge to help” is a common phrase that resonates throughout many academic works. While, in many cases, the “urge to help” may be less pragmatic and more self-benefitting, there are domestic social benefits that result from these trends. Evidence of this can be seen throughout the ethnographic report The Need to Help by Liisa Malkki.

It has been established that positive intentions do not directly correlate with positive outcomes. Nonetheless, it is important to consider the implications of positive intentions in a domestic atmosphere. In The Need to Help, Malkki discusses the implications of international aid efforts in the country of Finland. Finland’s culture stresses the importance of the individual; community is not integral to Finnish society (Malkki 137). In her book, Malkki refers to the community that has been built as a result of the “Aid Bunnies” (a project of the Finnish Red Cross). This “community” is largely archived on crafter’s blogs and internet sites (Malkki 119). This community can also be exemplified by the various knitting groups that have arisen from the project. In Finland, many people, especially the elderly, gain community from these domestic volunteer efforts. It is important that Finnish people are encouraged to find community, as loneliness can lead to several negative factors including an increased mortality rate (Malkki 138). This contrasts the American need to help, which stems from the American values of self-improvement and reliance on fake humility.

It is evident that as many Fins participate in humanitarian efforts to achieve community, they are not acting in complete selflessness. It is also apparent that in many (if not most) humanitarian efforts the actor is not completely selfless. The “Aid Bunny” project allows for people to participate in humanitarian efforts in a more “human” way while creating a sense of community for its participants and allowing them to fulfill a specific internal need. The question that remains is: where do we draw the line between preserving domestic humanity and, the more pragmatic option, effectively meeting the needs of foreign aid-recipients. An effective answer to this question requires more analytical research on the impact of aid in foreign countries.

While it is difficult to interpret the fine line between the two aforementioned values, it is important to consider the impact of citizens’ imagination on foreign aid-recipients. Imagination in humanitarian efforts have two main effects: imagination makes performing humanitarian efforts more meaningful, and it de-individualizes foreign aid-recipients. It is important that aid workers and volunteers understand the implications of one’s “imagination.” In The Need to Help, Malkki writes “The suspension (if not erasure) of the child’s parents, siblings, grandparents, and other relatives, and also friends, teachers, and neighbors, was a striking feature in the imagining of the needy children” (9). Adding imagination to the visualization of the needs of foreign aid recipients neglects many important factors. This omission can perpetuate a problematic image of foreign aid recipients. The use of imagination in foreign aid is an important factor to consider when evaluating the efficacy and value of international aid projects.

In a recent discussion with Betty Bigombe, she was asked about the effectiveness of campaigns such as The Enough Project. Although it has garnered national attention, The Enough Project has long been criticized for their ineffective and incomplete messaging about conflict minerals in the Congo. Bigombe remarked that it is difficult for American activists to tell the complete story and still gain support. Despite this, the publicity that the campaigns provide is very important (Bigombe). This idea parallels that of the “Aid Bunnies.” Although it may not be the most effective or pragmatic way of addressing an issue, it garners national attention and allows a wide range of participation in philanthropic acts.

The provision of foreign aid affects both the provider and the recipient countries. When evaluating the effectiveness of various humanitarian efforts, the social domestic benefits must be evaluated in addition to the more pragmatic foreign effects. Foreign aid efforts in Finland, specifically the “Aid Bunnies” have been successful in boosting Finnish morale. These domestic effects are important to recognize when determine the efficacy of various international aid projects.

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